Sinks come in single or double-basin configurations. Single sinks typically offer one wide and deep basin, while double sinks offer two smaller basins - one for preparation and another for clean-up. Most people opt for a double basin so that they have access to a clean sink for food prep. Although single sinks are still available, they are usually only chosen when there is another sink somewhere else in the room. Many newer kitchens incorporate more than one sink in order to accommodate cooking and cleaning needs at the same time.
Self-rimming sinks are the easiest to install because they simply fit into a hole in the countertop. Under-mounted sinks lend a sleeker look to the kitchen but require more skill to install (they are mounted entirely underneath the countertop, so faucet maneuvering is difficult). Flush-mounted sinks are installed flush with the countertop and are most often paired with tile counters (don't forget that grouting is still required between the tiles and sink). Molded sinks are fabricated in one piece and are actually part of the countertop.
When considering what faucet to add to your new kitchen sink, be sure to think about what you'll be using it for. Many people want to mount a water filter directly to the tap. Combine this with the fact that most faucets are commonly mounted in a fairly low position over the sink, and you end losing a lot of the useful space beneath the faucet this way. Choosing a higher faucet can allow space for the water filter and for prep space at the same time. Taps should be easy to open and close with your hands full. A spray hose for cleaning large fruits and vegetables can be a nice addition.